Luftwaffe 1938

This Luger is a toggle locked, recoil operated, semi-automatic pistol that is chambered in 9mm Parabellum. It utilizes an adjustable front blade sight and a fixed V notch rear sight that is located on the rear toggle link. It is fed by a single column 8 round detachable box magazine but it can also be fed by using a 32 round detachable drum. The Luger or more correctly, Parabellum-Pistole, like the ammunition it uses has been given many names.

For simplicity I will refer to them here as Luger. The same holds true with the ammunition that it uses. The Luger on this page was designed to be used with the 9mm Parabellum ammunition. This ammunition was developed by Georg Luger and as you may have guessed, he is responsible for the design of the Luger pistol. The 9mm Parabellum ammunition is also known as 9 x 19, 9mm, 9mm Luger and so on, but it is not the same round as the 9mm short, 9mm Makarov or 9mm largo for example. When I mention 9mm on this page I am strictly referring to the 9mm Parabellum ammunition that is used in this Luger and which is still in wide use today.

The Luger pistol has been manufactured to accept many different rounds, from 9mm to. The Luger does not use this design but rather it uses a unique toggle-lock action, which utilizes a jointed rocker arm. The barrel and toggle assembly is locked together when a round is fired and then travel rearward due to the force of the recoil. After this reward motion has traveled about a half an inch the toggle strikes a cam that is built into the pistol frame causing the knee joint to hinge and the toggle and breech assembly to unlock.

At this point the barrel strikes the frame which stops its movement but the toggle and breech assembly continue moving, bending upward at the knee joint and extracting the spent casing from the chamber and ejecting it. The toggle and breech assembly then change direction and start to travel forward under spring tension and the next round from the magazine is loaded into the chamber.

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This toggle and breech assembly can be seen in the next two pictures below. While this might sound like a complicated and timely process, the entire sequence occurs in just a fraction of a second.

The Luger is also is the only pistol that used an anti-bounce lock which is provided so that the rapidly moving bolt does not bounce back from the breech face on closing and before the mechanical locking system can take affect.

luftwaffe 1938

This system is common on light machine guns using a reciprocating bolt.During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base in the Soviet Union. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe ' s existence was publicly acknowledged on 26 Februaryjust over two weeks before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on 16 March.

Partially as a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in The Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in and During the Battle of Britainhowever, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF 's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitzdevastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission.

FromAllied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffe ' s fighter arm. From latethe Luftwaffe used its surplus ground support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombersthe Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, and a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.

In Januaryduring the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulgethe Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiorityand met with failure. With rapidly dwindling supplies of petroleum, oil, and lubricants after this campaign, and as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in During World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70, aerial victories, while over 75, Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged.

Of these, nearly 40, were lost entirely. The Luftwaffe was deeply involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration campsan industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners. The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe organized Nazi human experimentationand Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in ItalyGreeceand Poland. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailleswhich also mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft.

Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Unionwhich was also isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in and operated for approximately nine years using mostly Dutch and Soviet, but also some German, training aircraft before being closed in This base was officially known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army.

Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited, studied and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. The first steps towards the Luftwaffe ' s formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. The RLM was in charge of development and production of aircraft. On 25 March the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its 'sports' title.

On 15 Mayall military aviation organizations in the RLM were merged, forming the Luftwaffe ; its official 'birthday'. The Commander-in-Chief left the organisation and building of the Luftwaffeafterto Erhard Milch.

Another prominent figure in German air power construction this time was Helmuth Wilberg. Wilberg later played a large role in the development of German air doctrine. Having headed the Reichswehr air staff for eight years in the s, Wilberg had considerable experience and was ideal for a senior staff position. However, it was revealed Wilberg had a Jewish mother.

Wilberg remained in the air staff, and under Walther Wever helped draw up the Luftwaffe ' s principle doctrinal texts, "The Conduct of the Aerial War" and "Regulation 16".

The German officer Corps was keen to develop strategic bombing capabilities against its enemies. However, economic and geopolitical considerations had to take priority. The German air power theorists continued to develop strategic theories, but emphasis was given to army support, as Germany was a continental power and expected to face ground operations following any declaration of hostilities.Between andthe organization of the Luftwaffe underwent several changes.

Originally, the German military high command, for their air warfare forces, decided to use an organizational structure similar to the army and navy, treating the aviation branch as a strategic weapon of war. Later on, during the period of rapid rearmament, the Luftwaffe was organized more in a geographical fashion. German pilots were secretly trained for military aviation, first in the Soviet Union during the late s, and then in Germany in the early s.

Initial plans were for long-term growth of the Luftwaffe over a period of five years with the intention of using the Luftwaffe as a strategic force.

luftwaffe 1938

These plans were changed several times, especially after the June death of Walter Wever and the succession of Ernst Udet. The focus and role of the Luftwaffe became one of ground support for the German Army during its Lightning War German : Blitzkrieg campaigns.

This made the Luftwaffe one of the most powerful air forces in Europe during its initial years. Partly due to its ground support role, the Luftwaffe was reorganized in a fashion similar to the army units, with one unit controlling a specific area.

German air force order of battle - October 1, 1938 (Fall Grün)

Each Luftwaffe unit was self-contained and had complete control over all aspects of Luftwaffe forces in that area. In this position he had formed his own army, starting from a men police department to regiment size. He eventually included a tank regiment Fallschirm-Panzer DivisionFlak units and a signals regiment German : Luftnachrichten Regiment under the Luftwaffe umbrella.

During the s and s, air power had not matured enough to be considered a dominant weapon of war. Unlike the other two forces, air power did not have past experience to draw upon. This resulted in the air force having to learn from experience rather than the classroom. There were no cohesive ideas for the organization of a structured, modern air force.

Organization of the Luftwaffe

One train of thought subordinated the air force to the army in support of land operations and to the navy for maritime tasks. It would be staffed by soldiers or sailors trained to fly. The second theory envisioned a centralized, well organized air force to be used as a weapon of war, like the army and navy.

German aviators from World War I, followed this thought process.

luftwaffe 1938

Since they had the backing of the German political leadership, this is how the Luftwaffe was originally conceived and formed. Within the German air force leadership, the general opinion was that the Luftwaffe was a tactical rather than a strategic air force. Hence, in order to support the various army groups, the Luftwaffe was organized in similar fashion to the army.

Luftwaffe vs Czechoslovakia 1938

Its units had a flexible composition with sub-units being added or removed when necessary. These sub-units tended to be semi-autonomous and highly mobile.

This offered the flexibility required to support the ground units. From the start of the Spanish Civil Warthe Luftwaffe was in action continuously without the time for rest or training.

Multiple political acts and the consequent need for a show of strength forced the Luftwaffe to be in a perpetual state of readiness. This did not allow time for organizational strategy. Due to his political differences with the army leadership, he raised his own police force as Prussian Minister of the Interior.

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By Septemberthe Luftwaffe had a total of 4, aircraft andpersonnel. This strength had grown to 1, by In total,of these were in anti-aircraft units and another 18 percent were in the signals branch.Waffen-SS Kriegsberichter.

Kriegsberichter at work at the Front. Taken by Luftwaffe Kriegsberichter. Dornier Do 17 taken by Luftwaffe K-B reporter.

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Ranking officer's cuff title. Damage to left side of hanger. Slight ding in scabbard.

Luftwaffe (Wehrmacht)

Rudel drinks from his goblet as was customary upon receiving it. A young airman receives his Ehrenpokal. Heinkel He bomber during the Battle of Britain. The chip where is doesn't show. Fighter ace Walter Nowotny. Luftwaffe cap shown with this typical insignia Messerschmitt Me ; first operational jet-powered fighter in flight Me in aerial combat Messerschmitt Me s in flight.

Crest of the Fliegertruppe. Back of case Old rust Fantastic! Pilot and air gunner about to take off Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Stuka ace, with his air gunner Note the air gunner behind the pilot in the Ju 87 Stuka. Bf readied for takeoff. Note the air gunner with his shooting irons. Note the air gunner in rear section of cockpit of the Bf Front Back.

Luftwaffe radio operator at work Ring for a Luftwaffe radio operator Luftwaffe radio operator. Note the badge. Original booklet has a much better picture than this scanned image.Luftwaffe day parade in front of the Reich Air Ministry1 March Between andthe organization of the Luftwaffe underwent several changes. Originally, the German military high command, for their air warfare forces, decided to use an organizational structure similar to the army and navy, treating the aviation branch as a strategic weapon of war.

Later on, during the period of rapid rearmament, the Luftwaffe was organized more in a geographical fashion. German pilots were secretly trained for military aviation, first in the Soviet Union during the late s, and then in Germany in the early s. Initial plans were for long-term growth of the Luftwaffe over a period of five years with the intention of using the Luftwaffe as a strategic force.

These plans were changed several times, especially after the June death of Walter Wever and the succession of Ernst Udet. The focus and role of the Luftwaffe became one of ground support for the German Army during its Lightning War German : Blitzkrieg campaigns. This made the Luftwaffe one of the most powerful air forces in Europe during its initial years.

Partly due to its ground support role, the Luftwaffe was reorganized in a fashion similar to the army units, with one unit controlling a specific area. Each Luftwaffe unit was self-contained and had complete control over all aspects of Luftwaffe forces in that area. In this position he had formed his own army, starting from a men police department to regiment size.

He eventually included a tank regiment Fallschirm-Panzer DivisionFlak units and a signals regiment German : Luftnachrichten Regiment under the Luftwaffe umbrella. During the s and s, air power had not matured enough to be considered a dominant weapon of war. Unlike the other two forces, air power did not have past experience to draw upon. This resulted in the air force having to learn from experience rather than the classroom. There were no cohesive ideas for the organization of a structured, modern air force.

One train of thought subordinated the air force to the army in support of land operations and to the navy for maritime tasks. It would be staffed by soldiers or sailors trained to fly. The second theory envisioned a centralized, well organized air force to be used as a weapon of war, like the army and navy. German aviators from World War I, followed this thought process. Since they had the backing of the German political leadership, this is how the Luftwaffe was originally conceived and formed.Each Gruppe within the unit was equipped with a different type of aircraft.

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Each Gruppe consisted of several Staffel n squadrons. The Gruppe was identified by Roman numbers I. In Lehrgeschwader 2 thus consisted of a Bf fighter Gruppe designated I. The unit was created to control the Lehrgruppe in the Luftwaffe. Stab and I. In September the unit moved to Bonn-Hangelar and was redesignated Formed on 1 Octoberthe unit took part in the Polish Campaignclaiming six kills for three losses from 1—20 September The unit also participated in the Battle of France and the Battle of Britain.

Herbert Ihlefeldwas its most successful ace, claiming 24 victories by September and earning the Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes. The Gruppe claimed 92 victories during the Battle, for 22 aircraft lost and 16 damaged. It lost 10 pilots killed and missing and four as POW. The excellent ground attack work carried out by its sister Gruppe II. Now with 36 victories, Ihlefeld was at this time shot down by ground fire and captured by Yugoslavian soldiers.

While in captivity, he was allegedly severely beaten and was threatened with execution by firing squad. Ihlefeld was rescued by German troops after eight days of arrest and returned to Germany to recover. By the end of MayI. The Gruppe lost four aircraft and five damaged and suffered one pilot killed and one captured.

Following the successful conclusion of the Balkan campaign with the invasion of Crete the unit was withdrawn to Rumania for Operation Barbarossa. Geisshardt, after 6 victories in the Balkans, was to achieve much success over Russia claiming 28 victories with LG 2 and was awarded the Ritterkreuz in August The Gruppe scored 52 victories from June - December Total victories from September - 13 January amounted to kills.

luftwaffe 1938

I Gruppe was redesignated I. This unit was formed as Fliegergruppe 40 on 1 July During the Polish campaign of September II.Original Item: Only One Available. It is in near excellent condition with no damage or dents. It has not been touched since WW2 and has totally original wartime parts.

The interior features a soft, brown leather liner is size 56 7 US. It is well marked and produced by Heisler. It is nicely ink stamped with maker and size markings of the liner 58 and the shell 71 as follows:.

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Kopfweite: Gr. Seen between the liner band the liner itself are the complete seven charcoal foam pads; the entire assembly is attached to the shell via four correct wartime original bolts. The harness shows some wear and minor discoloration from age and one strap, while still attached, is frayed at the junction. The buckle is a wartime example some moderate surface rust. The helmet liner was wartime fitted with replacement bolts and the chinstraps were placed between the liner band and the shell, there have been numerous other examples like this, and as you can see the liner band is tight to the shell showing that this was a wartime configuration not post war modified.

The side of the interior shell is stamped ET68 and the rear of the skirt is stamped with the steel lot number All paratrooper helmets were produced by Eisenhuttenwerke of Thale. This example is a shell size 68 and was produced some time in - A fantastic example, with all the correct features and in prime condition, that has not been touched since WW2 and has totally original wartime parts. Shopping Cart 0 View cart.

Prev Next. Default Title - Sold Out. Add to Cart. It is nicely ink stamped with maker and size markings of the liner 58 and the shell 71 as follows: Kopfweite: Gr. Shipping Restrictions This product is available for international shipping. Payment Options Not eligible for payment with Paypal or Amazon.


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